What is contraception?
Contraception is a method to prevent unwanted pregnancy. There are several ways to do this. Some contraceptives (adhesion barriers) prevent sperm from reaching the uterus. Other contraceptives cause conditions in the female genitalia in return, making pregnancy impossible.
What forms of contraception are there?
They can be divided roughly into 2 main types of contraception: hormonal contraceptives and non-hormonal contraceptives. There is also a third option: the permanent contraception (sterilization).
Contraceptive pill : the pill is one of the most commonly used contraceptive methods. The pill works on the basis of hormones. Most pills are a combination of female sex hormones estrogen and progestogen.
These substances are dosed in such a way that inhibit ovulation, so no eggs are released.
Hormones also change the structure of the uterine mucosa (mouth). This makes it more difficult for sperm to penetrate the uterus and any fertilized egg will not be able to implant.
Types of contraceptive pills
There are different types of birth control pills to choose from. This can sometimes cause confusion. An overview of the types of pills:
Single-phase pill: for this type of pill, all band tablets have the same composition. Each tablet therefore contains the same dosage of the active ingredients.
If the monophasic pill contains less than 30 micrograms of estrogen, we call it a sub-30 pill.
If the pill contains 30 to 50 micrograms of estrogen, there is a pill under-50. Less estrogen pill contains, the less chance it has side effects.
Multi-phase pill: with this type of tablet, the dose of the active ingredients is different from the other. One pill contains the other more estrogen or progestin.
The multistage pill mimics the natural hormonal balance of a menstrual cycle. Dosing The differences can be recognized by the different colored tablets.
Mini pill: there are also birth control pills that contain only one hormone (progestin). These mini-pills supposedly are lighter, less likely to cause side effects and can also be used if you are breastfeeding.
Using the contraceptive pill
The contraceptive pill is a very reliable contraceptive, always take the right way. The pill use is different for each type. With most pills you take 1 tablet every day for 3 weeks.
This is followed by a call stop weeks: 7 days when you do not take a pill. During this week there is bleeding that resembles a menstrual period, but generally is light enough. This is called a withdrawal bleed.
It is also protected against pregnancy during the shutdown weeks. There are also pills that stop no week.
Then taking a pill daily until the strip is empty and then immediately proceed to the next strip. Depending on the type of pill, it will continue to produce a withdrawal bleed.
The contraceptive pill is developed quickly. If you stop using contraception this, you will be fertile again almost immediately.
Contraceptive pill for other purposes
Sometimes women take the pill for reasons other than birth control. For example, because suffering from menstrual disorders such as heavy bleeding, severe menstrual pain or a very irregular menstrual pattern.
Pill replaces it with a natural menstrual periods, bleeding normal smooth deprivation, which reduces these complaints.
Women who take the pill can change their periods. This can be useful, for example, if you need surgery, go on vacation, have a sporting event or if your period is inconvenient for some other reason.
Emergency contraceptive pill
The emergency contraceptive pill is not the same as a regular birth control pills. The so-called ” morningafter pill” is only intended to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse.
The emergency contraceptive pill contains a certain amount of hormones that inhibit ovulation and / or prevent a fertilized egg from settling. This means that there can be no pregnancy.
However, the tablet should be taken as soon as possible: preferably within 12 hours, but in any case within 3 to 5 days after unprotected intercourse.
Contraceptive injection: women who have difficulty taking a pill every day can choose a contraceptive injection. Hormones are injected into the body, after which no pregnancy can occur during 12 weeks. The contraceptive injection is administered by a doctor or nurse.
contraceptive implant: hormonal implant consists of a small implant that is placed under the skin on the arm. The implant releases a low dose of hormones every day.
This means that you continue to be protected against pregnancy for a period of 3 years. Contraceptive implants applied by a doctor or nurse.
contraceptive patch: when using the contraceptive patch, the hormone is absorbed into the bloodstream through the skin. the patch is replaced once a week. After three weeks there will be a stop week. During this week, triggered a withdrawal bleed.
Vaginal ring: vaginal ring releases hormones into the vaginal mucous membrane. The ring remains in place for three weeks, then quit the following week.
The ring is easy to insert and remove. The action can be compared to inserting a tampon.
Spiral with hormones: spiral, also known as Intra Uterine Device or IUD. It consists of, small plastic anchors are placed inside the uterus by a doctor.
Spiral releases a small amount of progestogen every day. This means that you continue to be protected against pregnancy. Hormones spiral must be replaced after 5 years.
There are also ways to prevent pregnancy without the use of hormones. adhesion barriers such as condoms and pessaries are very suitable for this purpose.
Non-hormonal contraceptive is copper coil. Non-hormonal contraceptives do not cause side effects and are safe for use by breastfeeding women.
adhesion barrier: a barrier anti-adhesion prevents sperm from reaching the uterus. These contraceptives literally form a barrier between sperm and the uterus. There are different types:
Condom: condom is the only contraceptive method not definitive for a man for the moment.
Condoms are safe and when used according to instructions. The advantage of a condom is that this contraceptive also protects against an STD (sexually transmitted disease).
Condoms come in many shapes and sizes. Choose a variant that fits well and feels good.
Female condom: The female condom consisting of a pocket with a rubber ring. Insert the condom (up to 24 hours) in the vagina before intercourse.
So you do not have to interrupt sexual activity, which is the case when a male condom is used. The female condom also protects against sexually transmitted diseases.
Pessary: A pessary is a rubber stopper is placed on the neck of the uterus. This is possible from 2 hours before intercourse.
Always use the pessary in combination with a spermicidal pasta. After intercourse, the pessary should be kept in the vagina for 6 hours.
Only then is it certain that all sperm cells have died and the cover can be removed safely.
copper spiral: a copper coil is a small object, shaped anchor is placed in the uterus. The spiral continuously emits a small amount of copper.
This makes inactive sperm, so it can not take place fertilization. Thus, a copper coil protects against unwanted pregnancy for about 5 to 10 years. The coil is inserted into the uterus by a doctor.
A definitive form of contraception is sterilization. With this surgical procedure, fertility is definitely over.
In principle, you will not be able to have children after sterilization. Sterilization is therefore only for people who do not want to have a child (no longer). Both men and women can be sterilized.
Sterilisation of the man
In a vasectomy (male sterilization), the vas deferens is cut through. As a result, sperm no longer contains sperm and fertilization can not take place. The operation is performed by a urologist.
Sterilisation of the woman
Whether a woman chooses sterilization, the fallopian tubes are sealed. As a result, fertile eggs can no longer come into contact with sperm cells.
Today a urologist only performs this surgical procedure through 2 small incisions in the abdominal wall (laparoscopy) .Sterilisation takes place in an outpatient unit for both men and women. So you can go home the same day.
alternative method of contraception: periodic abstinence
Another way to not get pregnant, but without the use of regular contraception is periodic abstinence. This calculates when a woman is fertile.
During the fertile period no sex, or an adhesion barrier (condom or pessary). There are different ways to calculate the fertile period of a woman:
Around ovulation, the body temperature of a woman rises a fraction. By measuring the temperature on a daily basis, a personal fertility profile can be calculated.
special thermometers and computers are available for the calculations. However, this method can also be performed manually.
In order to accurately map the temperature variations, it is necessary to take the temperature at the same time every day.
If you deviate from this, the body temperature may already have changed again, making the result less reliable measure.
Factors such as stress enough or too much drink alcohol, do not sleep can also influence the measurement results.
The method cervical mucus
Around ovulation, the composition of the endometrium changes. By studying the lining of the vagina on a daily basis.
it is possible to determine whether a woman is fertile. It is not always easy to see the differences in the mucous membrane.
The calendar method
With a regular cycle, ovulation (and therefore the fertile period) is also produced at regular intervals.
A pattern maintaining cycle naturally fertile period can be predicted at some point. An irregular cycle makes it much more difficult to trace the fertile period.
Additional risks and side effects
There may be risks and side effects associated with the use of contraceptives. These differ contraceptive.
Risks and side effects of hormonal contraceptives
hormone-based contraceptives may cause side effects. Best known side effects of hormonal contraceptives are:
Light bleeding outside of menstruation (bleeding or spotting)
sore breasts or tense
Side effects are rare but serious include cancer and thrombosis. Women taking the pill or use other forms of hormonal contraception have a slightly increased risk of developing these conditions.
However, women over 35 who smoke are more likely to experience these side effects. They are not advised to use hormonal contraception. This also applies to women who suffer from certain conditions or are taking certain medications.
Hormonal contraceptives forgotten
Hormonal contraceptives are only reliable if they are used very precisely. Did you forget to take the pill, for example, or apply a new ring or patch? Then it is possible that you are no longer protected optimally against pregnancy.
This is also the case if you vomit the pill or the patch came loose accidentally.
The body may not have been able to absorb the active ingredients sufficiently. The product information leaflet indicates exactly what you need to do if this happens.
Hormonal contraceptives and breastfeeding
Hormones in contraceptives are not always suitable for breastfeeding women. contraceptives containing the hormone estrogen especially first reduce the production of breast milk.
So it is best not to use these contraceptives during the first six weeks of breastfeeding. A mini-pill with progesterone alone has no effect on the production of breast milk.
You can use this pill if you are breastfeeding. The same goes for a spiral. However, this contraceptive can be placed 4 to 6 weeks after delivery.
The hormones you receive can pass into breast milk and reach the child. This is not necessarily harmful to the child.
The risks and side effects of non-hormonal contraceptives
The use of non-hormonal contraception little gifts or no risks or side effects. Establishment of a copper spiral can be painful. Some women with a copper spiral also suffer from heavier rules.
Sterilization is an operation. This involves the usual risks of surgery. The reliability of adhesion barriers is significantly reduced if a condom or pessary are not used correctly.
A condom can tear, for example, or a pessary can move. In addition, the use of certain medications can affect the contraceptive material and make it less reliable. read the manual carefully before always use these contraceptives.
The risks and side effects of alternative methods of contraception
The reliability of periodic abstinence contraceptive method is (much) smaller than regular contraceptives. The calendar methods and temperature require very specific documents.
For the method of cervical smear, the lining is not always easy to assess. In addition, the sperm cells can survive for several days in the womb.
If periodic abstinence is started too late, there is a chance that a fertilized egg.
Using periodic abstinence as a method of contraception that more pregnant women accidentally become that the use of regular contraceptives.
Morning after Pill
Life is full of unexpected situations, such as the disappearance of a birth control pill or having a romantic chance encounter unprotected. No need to feel guilty about this kind of thing happens all the time.
Sometimes birth control is not enough, for example, a condom can tear, also get sick and vomiting or diarrhea may affect the action (protection) of a contraceptive pill.
These are all scenarios that can endanger you to get pregnant. The morning after pill is a solution. It keeps you protected from becomming pregant if events occur lifes little unexpected.
The easiest and reliable morning after pill Levonelle on the market (Levonelle) and is available without a doctor s \ prescription. The morning after pill should be taken within 72 hours after unprotected intercourse.
Another morning after pill, which can take up to 5 days after unprotected intercourse is called ellaOne. The morning after pill is available without doctor \ prescription “and can be ordered online.
Menstruation can be very painful. Hormonal fluctuations can completely disrupt the mind, following which some women can not function normally.
In a woman, the blood loss is not so bad, but in other women it can be a lot. There may be situations where a sanitary napkin or tampon should be changed every hour.
Furthermore, cramps, nausea and possible head ache may occur. A link has been established between menstruation and migraine episodes.
This may be a good reason to keep your time to a minimum. You can choose to have your period once every six weeks, or perhaps not even having for a year.
Another reason may be that a medical procedure is provided.
Specialists schedules and hospitals can not be adapted indefinitely to your menstrual cycle, and you may not want to not have your period in hospital during surgery and during the recovery period.
This can also be a reason to postpone or advance your period. Finally, there are social reasons.
It happens to every woman once in a while; you plan a great holiday and discover that you will get your period this week exactly.
Or you may need to make a presentation in the middle of the week of your period. Even then, it is very nice to be able to adjust your cycle.
Fortunately, there are opportunities to defer, or even jump ahead of your time, even if you do not take a contraceptive pill.
Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
When a woman enters menopause, estrogen production in the ovaries decreases. This can lead to all sorts of complaints such as hot flashes, sweating, fatigue, mood swings and nonchalance.
Depending on the severity of symptoms, the drug in the form of hormones may be prescribed, so-called hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). These hormones estrogen supplement the content.
This reduces or eliminates the symptoms. Treatment is best started early in menopause.
However, there are also disadvantages to hormone replacement therapy, which is why the benefits and risks of HRT need to be examined carefully to make an informed choice that best suits you.
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